[18] In either case, the sperm must move from the antheridia where they are produced to the archegonium where the eggs are held. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Liverworts are non-vascular plants, also called hepatics. Clusters of antheridia are enclosed by a protective layer of cells called the perigonium (plural: perigonia). Seeds are the products of the sexual reproduction of plants, and for this reason the genetic information of seeds is influenced by both of the, Bryn athyn College of the New Church: Tabular Data, Bryn Athyn College of the New Church: Narrative Description, Bryman College (Ontario): Narrative Description, Brytte (Also Britte, Brit, or Brute), Walter, https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bryophyte, https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bryophyte-0, https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/bryophytes-0, https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/bryophytes, https://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/applied-and-social-sciences-magazines/bryophytes, https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bryophyte, https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/bryophyte, Leaves divided into two-plus lobes, no midvein, Present in both gametophyte and sporophyte, Present only in a few simple thalloid forms, Apical clusters (leafy forms) or on upper surface of thallus, Present in both sporophyte and gametophyte, Photosynthetic, emergent from gametophyte early in development, Hyaline, elongating just prior to spore release, Complex with operculum, theca, and neck; of fixed size, Undifferentiated, spherical, or elongate; of fixed size, Undifferentiated, horn-shaped; growing continuously from a basal meristem. A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. "Spore Germination, Protonemata Development and Sporeling Development", p. 347. A tubular perianth often surrounds the developing capsule. AP Notes, Outlines, Study Guides, Vocabulary, Practice Exams and more! However, certain species may cover large patches of ground, rocks, trees or any other reasonably firm substrate on which they occur. The seta is colourless and semi-transparent; it lengthens after the . PRINTED FROM OXFORD REFERENCE (www.oxfordreference.com). contain only one genus with two species each. The Rough Guide to the Brain (Rough Guides Reference Titles), The Red Queen - Sex and the Evolution of Human Nature, The Lives of a Cell - Notes of a Biology Watcher, This Is Biology - The Science of the Living World. They can be distinguished from the apparently similar mosses by their single celled rhizoids. phylum Bryophyta - mosses. The female organs are known as archegonia (singular archegonium) and are protected by the perichaetum (plural perichaeta). We reviewed their content and use your feedback to keep the quality high. Therefore, its best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publications requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. See all related overviews in Oxford Reference Monocleales Encyclopedia.com. Sterile structures: petal (single) and corolla (collective petals) sepal (single) and calyx (collective sepals) perianth (the petals and sepals together) x. Hepatophyta Anthocerophyta Bryophyta Example organisms Support system Anchoring structures Method of transport Reproduction 2 What are 10 reasons you should "thank a plant"? [48] In addition to this taxon-based name, the liverworts are often called Hepaticophyta. Science and technology [12] The overall physical similarity of some mosses and leafy liverworts means that confirmation of the identification of some groups can be performed with certainty only with the aid of microscopy or an experienced bryologist. If Youngs double-slit experiment were performed under water, how would the observed interference pattern be affected? [35] In addition, there is strong phylogenetic evidence to suggest that liverworts and mosses form a monophyletic subclade named Setaphyta. The LibreTexts libraries arePowered by NICE CXone Expertand are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. ." Use morphological traits and cellular components to distinguish between liverworts and other bryophytes. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. (April 27, 2023). This is a transitory stage in the life of a liverwort. Encyclopedia.com. b. a. For general help, questions, and suggestions, try our dedicated support forums. about its relationship to other liverworts, but it is now placed within the All Rights Reserved. However, many liverworts produce leafy gametophytes. [5], Most liverworts are small, measuring from 220 millimetres (0.080.8in) wide with individual plants less than 10 centimetres (4in) long,[6] so they are often overlooked. Will megaspores divide to form the female gametophyte or the sporophyte? plants that have ever existed. current uncertainty about root makes such changes premature. From the protonema grows the gametophore ("gamete-bearer") that produces the sex organs of the liverworts. Your current browser may not support copying via this button. Without water, fertilisation cannot occur. Class. The earliest terrestrial plants had features similar to today's bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts), and were thus nonwoody. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. pp. [33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][excessive citations] Hence, it has been suggested that the liverworts should be de-ranked to a class called Marchantiopsida. Another similarity to hornworts is the presence of simple pores for gas exchange (no guard cells, meaning pores are permanently open). and its traditionally separate status, but also because it may be the sister Like other mosses, Marchantia shows an alternation of generation (more hereabout in mosses ). They are the vascular plants (those having xylem and phloem tissues) that reproduce by releasing spores rather, Modern classification systems, based largely on molecular evidence, divide living organisms into three domains: Bacteria (also called Eubacteria), Ar, Ferns Not to be confused with the genus of flowering plants, Walker, Matt. (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2023. The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English, The Lycophyta, Equisetophyta, and Psilophyta are collectively referred to as the fern allies because, like the ferns (Pterophyta), they reproduce by, Bryophyta (brft, brft), division of green land plants that includes the mosses (class Bryopsida), the liverworts (Marchantiopsida), and t, Pteridophtyes are a phylum of plants. The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. what is this? The haploid gametophyte is multicellular and defined by production of male and female gametes through mitosis. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Relationships within the Plantae. "Hepatophyta -initially depends on gametophyte. . is the antheridia of mosses the female or male reproductive part? -adventitious roots. living species, no one is really certain where it belongs. MICHAEL ALLABY "Hepatophyta Retrieved April 27, 2023 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/hepatophyta-0. Today, liverworts are relatively minor components of the land plant flora, growing mostly in moist, shaded areas (although some are adapted to periodically dry, hot habitats). what vascular seedless plant phyla do ferns, whisk ferns, and horsetails belong to? After fertilisation, the immature sporophyte within the archegonium develops three distinct regions: (1) a foot, which both anchors the sporophyte in place and receives nutrients from its "mother" plant, (2) a spherical or ellipsoidal capsule, inside which the spores will be produced for dispersing to new locations, and (3) a seta (stalk) which lies between the other two regions and connects them. Liverwort species may be either dioicous or monoicous. Thus, we use Crandall-Stotler et al. what gender part of moss (phylum bryophyta) is this? Organic nutrients such as sugars are made by photosynthesis. We hope your visit has been a productive one. Asexual reproduction is accomplished through the production of haploid gemmae from the gametophyte thallus. In this new classification, the Haplomitriales are part of the Metzgeriidae. fr:Hpatique A flower is a shoot that terminates in leaves specialized for reproduction. Bold, Alexopoulos, and Delevoryas, 1987, Morphology of Plants and Fungi, Harper-Collins, NY. MICHAEL ALLABY "Hepatophyta The male and female gametes fuse during fertilization, forming a diploid sporophyte. ." Small in size, no vascular system, gametophyte dominant, need water for reproduction. Encyclopedia.com. The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. Bryophytes are the simplest of plants (excluding the algae, which are not considered plants by most botanists). - The gametophytes are liver shaped. -may be 1 cell layer or thick and leathery. Liverworts can be either dioecious or monoecious). From: representative plants - split into 3 groups, non-vascular plants - lack vascular tissue, true roots, stems, leaves. Language links are at the top of the page across from the title. . The liverworts are a group of plants that include about 6,000 to 8,000 species. In monoecious liverworts, they are borne on the same plant. phylum bryophyta; antheridia (of a) male (moss). Like other mosses, Marchantia shows an alternation of generation (more hereabout in, 1 thallus; 2 scales; 3 upper cell layer; 4 rhizoids; 5 hair. "Tropical Forest Bryophytes", p. 59, Crandall-Stotler, Barbara. more prominent than in liverwort. Jungermanniopsida (including the three boxes on the left side of the Turgor-Based Stem Support Systems. Lunularic acid, a common growth inhibitor of liverworts, and five of its synthetic derivatives have also been tested . Within the Cite this article tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. In the more familiar seed plants, the haploid generation is represented only by the tiny pollen and the ovule, while the diploid generation is the familiar tree or other plant. The life of a liverwort starts from the germination of a haploid spore to produce a protonema, which is either a mass of thread-like filaments or a flattened thallus. [8][31] Somewhat more recently, the liverworts were given their own division (Marchantiophyta),[32] as bryophytes became considered to be paraphyletic. -single axis- shoot or underground rhizome, usually a siphonostele. phyte / brft/ n. any flowerless, rootless plant of the phylum Bryophyta, including mosses and liverworts. . The liverworts, formerly the Hepatophyta, got their name from their thalloid gametophytes being compared to the shape of a liver. pp. Bryologists classify liverworts in the division Marchantiophyta. Species in the Aneuraceae, however, associate with basidiomycete fungi belonging to the genus Tulasnella, while leafy liverworts typically harbor symbiotic basidiomycete fungi belonging to the genus Serendipita.[28]. Hepatophyta Anthocerophyta Bryophyta Example Organisms Liverwart Hornwart Moss Support System Vascular Vascular Nonvascular Anchoring Structures Rhizoids anchor these Rhiziods anchor them to the ground Multicellular Rhszoids that anchor them Method of Transport Water and nutrients transported by osmosis and diffusion Use osmosis and diffusion . You run the reaction twice by keeping one reactant at a much higher pressure than the other reactant (this lower-pressure reactant begins at 1.000 atm. [34][38] Among the earliest fossils believed to be liverworts are compression fossils of Pallaviciniites from the Upper Devonian of New York. "[23] For example, in Riccia, when the older parts of the forked thalli die, the younger tips become separate individuals. Larger in size, vascular system, sporophyte dominant, small gametophyte, need water for PressureofHF(atm)00.3000.6000.9001.2001.500Time(min)030.065.8110.4169.1255.9. It has a stem, leaves, roots, and a well-developed vascular sy, acervulus An asexual, conidia-bearing structure that is formed by certain fungi parasitic in plants. It is estimated that there are about 9000 species of liverworts. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. [8] Each archegonium has a slender hollow tube, the "neck", down which the sperm swim to reach the egg cell. Hepatophyta: Example Organisms: Haplomitriopsida, Jungermanniels, Jungermaniopsida. & Stotler, Raymond E. "Morphology and classification of the Marchantiophyta". 358374, Pcs, Tams. [26] Marchantia polymorpha is a common weed in greenhouses, often covering the entire surface of containers;[27]:230 gemma dispersal is the "primary mechanism by which liverwort spreads throughout a nursery or greenhouse. In addition, the name Hepaticophyta is frequently misspelled in textbooks as Hepatophyta, which only adds to the confusion. The link was not copied. [15] In mosses, the sporophyte is more persistent and in hornworts, the sporophyte disperses spores over an extended period. Support System: Stomatal cells and alternation of generations betwee gametophytes (haploid gamete bearing) and sporophytes (diploid spore forms). at the top of this page. Experts are tested by Chegg as specialists in their subject area. is the archegonia of mosses the female or male reproductive part? It takes about a quarter to half a year for the sporophyte to mature. Like mosses and hornworts, they have a gametophyte-dominant life cycle, in which cells of the plant carry only a single set of genetic information. The life of a liverwort starts from a haploid spore, which germinates to produce a protonema, which is either a mass of filaments or thalloid (flat and thallus-like). Anchoring Structure:, 1 Complete the following table. Home - Other Field Guides. Species in this classification. but the Hepaticophyta suggests that they were the earliest group to diverge. Liverworts appear to have diverged from all other embryophyte plants near the beginning of their evolution. Need help with knowledge of how animals colonized land? Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Mal drain, sites humides posent des dfis ceux qui souhaitent planter des arbustes ou des arbres. The spore-producing cells will undergo meiosis to form haploid spores to disperse, upon which point the life cycle can start again. Are the spores in the sporangia produced by meiosis or mitosis? [CDATA[ Create your account. 1 stalk; 2 cap; 3 archegonia; 4 slime cells; 5 thallus, 1 young archegonium; 2 egg cell; 3 neck canal cells; 4 mature archegonium; 5 neck canal; 6 mature egg cell; D overlay, A. longitudinal section: 1 thallus; 2 base of the antheridiophore; 3 antheridia; 4 antheridiophore; B: antheridium with spermatogenic cells; C sperms with flagella, A. Longitudinal section: 1 stalk of the archegoniofoor; 2 sporangium (spore capsule); 3 spores; 4 seta; 5 base; B detail sporangium; C detail spores and elateres in the spore capsule. This divisional name is based on the name of the most universally recognized liverwort genus Marchantia. gametophyte - radially symmetrical thallus. In 2007, the oldest fossils assignable at that time to the liverworts were announced, Metzgeriothallus sharonae from the Givetian (Middle Devonian) of New York, United States. Liverworts are typically small, usually from 220mm wide with individual plants less than 10cm long, and are therefore often overlooked. visit the Tree of Life. cladogram) and the Marchantiopsida (including Sphaerocarpidae and gemma), are sometimes produced in structures called gemmae cups (Figure \(\PageIndex{3}\)). To better understand the relationships, it may be helpful -megaphylls. "bryophyte liverworts are believed to be the oldest surviving lineage of plants, with an As the sporangium develops, meiosis occurs simultaneously to produce haploid spores. The name Hepaticophyta/Marchantiophyta/"Hepatophyta". ja: These liverworts are termed thallose liverworts. The leaves are arranged in a flat plane (Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\)) with a set of smaller underleaves (Figure \(\PageIndex{2}\)). A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. 2n, small, nonphotosynthetic, nutritionally dependent on gametophyte. What feature of the life cycle differs for bryophytes compared with all other land plants? Hepatophyta Division - Liverworts - Hepatophyta. Porella platyphylla clump growing on a tree. Other liverworts produce flattened stems with overlapping scales or leaves in three or more ranks, the middle rank being conspicously different from the outer ranks. Liverworts as "bryophytes" (Hepaticophyta, Anthocerotophyta, Is the dominant generation for the fern the gametophyte or the sporophyte? Liverworts have a global distribution and can be found in many habitats, including a few desert and even arctic species. When sperm reach the archegonia, fertilisation occurs, leading to the production of a diploid sporophyte. window.__mirage2 = {petok:"OwtTBjufOpvj1bSqJEJUQQ31dEDKGZFf4ObDRNoB75A-86400-0"}; In 2008, Japanese researchers discovered that some liverworts are able to fire sperm-containing water up to 15cm in the air, enabling them to fertilize female plants growing more than a metre from the nearest male.[20]. However, we have We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. Hepatophyta Anthocerophyta Bryophyta Example organisms Support system Anchoring structures Method of transport Reproduction. ." extracellular components and connections between cells help coordinate cellular activites, non-vascular plants - liverworts, mosses, hornworts, vascular, non-seed plants - ferns, fern allies, vascular, seed plants - gymnosperms, angiosperms, rhizoids - root-like structures that anchor the plant, thallus - leaf-like structure, flattened and bilaterally symmetrical, asexual reproduction through fragmentation or gemmae production, sexual reproduction within the archegonia, gametophyte - radially symmetrical thallus, asexual reproduction through fragmentation only, sexual reproduction similar to that of liverworts, sporophyte - capsule extending on top of the moss, sporophyte - horn-shaped structure protruding from thallus. The presence of a vesicle transport system inside chloroplasts of spermatophytes raises the question of its phylogenetic origin. It also turns out that you find data taken from another person in the lab. . 2023 . A Dictionary of Biology. Ferns do not reproduce by seeds, however, and ha, Seeds Small in size, no vascular system, gametophyte dominant, need water for reproduction. A few species, such as Riccia fluitans, are aquatic thallose liverworts sold for use in aquariums. also, it is haploid or diploid? [7][8] (See the gallery below for examples.). what plant? Retrieved April 27, 2023 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/hepatophyta. They were small in stature, . what phylum? You are studying the kinetics of the reaction H2(g)+F2(g)2HF(g)\mathrm { H } _ { 2 } ( \mathrm { g } ) + \mathrm { F } _ { 2 } ( g ) \rightarrow 2 \mathrm { HF } ( g )H2(g)+F2(g)2HF(g) and you wish to determine a mechanism for the reaction. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. in major split occurred in their evolution, with one line producing the liverworts cells that regulate air flow in and out of the plant. what are the 2 nonvascular plant phyla. See Answer (2009), is paraphyletic. They are flowerless plants exhibiting an alternatio, spermatophyte Seed-bearing plant, including most trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants. Leafy liverworts also differ from most (but not all) mosses in that their leaves never have a costa (present in many mosses) and may bear marginal cilia (very rare in mosses). Other differences are not universal for all mosses and liverworts, but the occurrence of leaves arranged in three ranks, the presence of deep lobes or segmented leaves, or a lack of clearly differentiated stem and leaves all point to the plant being a liverwort. included it here with a red box and a question mark to indicate the uncertainty However, recent genetic evidence does not support this and instead places mosses and liverworts as sister taxa. [46] However, in 2010, five different types of fossilized liverwort spores were found in Argentina, dating to the much earlier Middle Ordovician, around 470 million years ago.[1][47]. about its placement. These liverworts are termed thallose liverworts. -fronds. uncertainty & need for more work (multiple outgroups), Paraphyly of Metzgeriidae Are the gametes produced by mitosis or meiosis? Hepatophyta (Marchantia) On this page we have a closer look at the life cycle of Marchantia, a liverwort (Familie: Marchantiaceae, phylum: Hepatophyta; sometimes Marchantia is called umbrella liverwort). The common name for this phylum is the liverworts. less water-dependent than liverwort. [21][22] When the sporophyte has developed all three regions, the seta elongates, pushing its way out of the archegonium and rupturing it. . A plant is a multicelled organism that makes its own food by photosynthesis. You'll get a detailed solution from a subject matter expert that helps you learn core concepts. Sketch an energy-level diagram (qualitative) that is consistent with the one described. The sperm of liverworts is biflagellate, i.e. For more information about the systematics of the That is, once plants evolved, a p. 63. n. any flowerless, rootless plant of the phylum Bryophyta, including mosses and liverworts. The seta is colourless and semi-transparent; it lengthens after the capsule has reached its full size, and is structurally much weaker than a moss seta. Develop a reasonable mechanism for the reaction. The cladogram pictured above provides a summary of our current ideas about Liverworts may be thallose, i.e. However, we have singled Haplomitrium out for a box of its own in the Phylum Hepatophyta common name. However, since this makes the Bryophyta paraphyletic, the liverworts are now usually given their own division, Hepatophyta, with a single class, Hepaticopsida. Nehira, Kunito. An unrelated flowering plant, Hepatica, is sometimes also refered to as liverwort because it was once also used in treating diseases of the liver. Liverworts can most reliably be distinguished from the apparently similar mosses by their single-celled rhizoids. 3638, Goffinet, Bernard. A short seta extends to push the developed sporangium outward, lifting the arms of the archegoniophore. The Marchantiophyta (/ m r k n t i f t ,-o f a t / ()) are a division of non-vascular land plants commonly referred to as hepatics or liverworts.Like mosses and hornworts, they have a gametophyte-dominant life cycle, in which cells of the plant carry only a single set of genetic information.. These archegonia are situated on the underside of the archegonial head. https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/hepatophyta, MICHAEL ALLABY "Hepatophyta . Sphaerocarpales This is in contrast to the pattern exibited by most higher plants and animals. alongside mosses and hornworts. the diploid body) are very short-lived, withering away not long after releasing spores. [34][42][43], An important conclusion from these phylogenies is that the ancestral stomata appear to have been lost in the liverwort lineage. [59], In ancient times, it was believed that liverworts cured diseases of the liver, hence the name. Hepatophyta, Anthocerophyta, or Bryophyta, using the following key (some choices may pertain to two or three phyla): H Hepatophyta A . Their thin, slender branches float on the water's surface and provide habitat for both small invertebrates and the fish that feed on them. Palm tree-like structures called archegoniophores are formed from the haploid gametophyte tissue. [25] In Metzgeria, gemmae grow at thallus margins. ." It is estimated that there are about 9000 species of liverworts. Liverworts are the only major group of It consists of a mat of fungal tissue which bear, The Lycophyta, Equisetophyta, and Psilophyta are collectively referred to as the fern allies because, like the ferns (Pterophyta), they reproduce by, Plants Unlike the mosses, the capsule lacks an operculum. If we see enough demand, we'll do whatever we can to get those notes up on the site for you! how do things move around in a nonvascular plant like phylum bryophyte (moss) or phylum hepatophyte (liverworts), no (nonvascularity results in small organisms), is H20 needed for reproduction in the life cycle of phylum bryophyte (moss). Using complete subshell notation (1s22s22p61 s^{2} 2 s^{2} 2 p^{6}1s22s22p6, and so forth), predict the electron configuration of each of the following atoms: (a) N (b) Si (c) Fe (d) Te (e) Tb. Unlike the hornworts, there is no columella. The capsule is usually ovoid or spherical and does not have a lid; when ripe, it usually splits into 4 valves to release the spores. asexual reproduction through fragmentation only. 1997. [9] Other differences are not universal for all mosses and all liverworts;[8] but the lack of clearly differentiated stem and leaves in thallose species, or in leafy species the presence of deeply lobed or segmented leaves and the presence of leaves arranged in three ranks,[10][11] as well as frequent dichotomous branching, all point to the plant being a liverwort. "[27]:231, Thalloid liverworts typically harbor symbiotic glomeromycete fungi which have arbuscular (cilia-bearing) rootlets resembling those in vascular plants. . The leaves never have a thickened nerve or midrib, and are often lobed or segmented. Involvement of the mevalonic acid pathway and the glyceraldehyde-pyruvate pathway in terpenoid biosynthesis of the liverworts Ricciocarpos natans and Conocephalum conicum [8]. antheridia gender? three subgroups. Ferns do not reproduce by seeds, however, and ha, https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/hepatophyta, https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/hepatophyta-0. Pteridophyta (pteridophytes) A division of the plant kingdom, comprising the vascular cryptogams. Legal. . in nonvascular plants, what is the dominant generation? Even the sterile leaves may assist in procuring sex. (2009) as a temporary system until that problem is resolved. In dioecious liverworts, male and female sex organs are borne on different plants. Cretaceous and Devonian. Ferns, like the more familiar seed plants, have stems, roots, and large, highly veined leaves. in vascular plants, what is the dominant generation? Volume 1, Chapter 11-1: Photosynthesis: The Process, "Splash-Cup Dispersal Of Gemmae In The Liverwort Marchantia-Polymorpha", "Postemergence Liverwort Control in Container-Grown Nursery Crops1", "Conservative ecological and evolutionary patterns in liverwortfungal symbioses", "Conflicting Phylogenies for Early Land Plants are Caused by Composition Biases among Synonymous Substitutions", 1983/ad32d4da-6cb3-4ed6-add2-2415f81b46da, 1983/0b471d7e-ce54-4681-b791-1da305d9e53b, "One thousand plant transcriptomes and the phylogenomics of green plants", "The hornwort genome and early land plant evolution", 1983/fbf3f371-8085-4e76-9342-e3b326e69edd, "Anthoceros genomes illuminate the origin of land plants and the unique biology of hornworts", "The Chloroplast Land Plant Phylogeny: Analyses Employing Better-Fitting Tree- and Site-Heterogeneous Composition Models", "Large-Scale Phylogenomic Analyses Reveal the Monophyly of Bryophytes and Neoproterozoic Origin of Land Plants", "The mitochondrial phylogeny of land plants shows support for Setaphyta under composition-heterogeneous substitution models", "Early Middle Ordovician evidence for land plants in Argentina (eastern Gondwana)", 10.1639/0007-2745(2006)109[303:UTEHOT]2.0.CO;2, "Illuminating the evolutionary history of liverworts (Marchantiophyta) towards a natural classification", 10.1639/0007-2745(2007)110[179:BPATMA]2.0.CO;2, "Bryophyte phylogeny poster: systematics and Characteristics of Nonvascular Land Plants (Mosses, Liverworts, Hornworts)", "World checklist of hornworts and liverworts", "Female-specific gene expression in dioecious liverwort Pellia endiviifolia is developmentally regulated and connected to archegonia production", LiToL: Assembling the Liverwort Tree of Life, Inter-relationships of Mosses, Liverworts, and Hornworts, Archaeal Richmond Mine acidophilic nanoorganisms, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Marchantiophyta&oldid=1147816658, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2014, Articles tagged with the inline citation overkill template from October 2021, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0. Although plants show a variety of form, function, and activity, a, Ferns The archegonia have necks called venters which the male sperm swim down. choice of outgroup affects rooting Although there is no consensus among bryologists as to the classification of liverworts above family rank,[49] the Marchantiophyta may be subdivided into three classes:[50][51][52][53], An updated classification by Sderstrm et al.